Science is the study of observation and experiments.
Science, systematic study of anything that can be examined, tested, and verified. The word science is derived from the Latin word scire, meaning “to know.” From its early beginnings, science has developed into one of the greatest and most influential fields of human endeavor. Today different branches of science investigate almost everything that can be observed or detected, and science as a whole shapes the way we understand the universe, our planet, ourselves, and other living things.
BRANCHES OF SCIENCE
Classifying sciences involves arbitrary decisions because the universe is not easily split into separate compartments. The article divided into some major branches: mathematics, physical sciences, earth sciences, life sciences, and social sciences. Another branch, technology, draws on discoveries from all areas of science and puts them to practical use. Each of these branches itself consists of numerous subdivisions.
The mathematical sciences investigate the relationships between things that can be measured or quantified in either a real or abstract form. Pure mathematics differs from other sciences because it deals solely with logic, rather than with nature's underlying laws. However, because it can be used to solve so many scientific problems, mathematics is usually considered to be a science itself.
Central to mathematics is arithmetic, the use of numbers for calculation. In arithmetic, mathematicians combine specific numbers to produce a result. A separate branch of mathematics, called algebra, works in a similar way, but uses general expressions that apply to numbers as a whole. For example, if there are three separate items on a restaurant bill, simple arithmetic produces the total amount to be paid. But the total can also be calculated by using an algebraic formula. A powerful and flexible tool, algebra enables mathematicians to solve highly complex problems in every branch of science.
Geometry investigates objects and the spaces around them. In its simplest form, it deals with objects in two or three dimensions, such as lines, circles, cubes, and spheres. Geometry can be extended to cover abstractions, including objects in many dimensions. Although we cannot perceive these extra dimensions ourselves, the logic of geometry still holds.
The physical sciences investigate the nature and behaviour of matter and energy on a vast range of size and scale. In physics itself, scientists study the relationships between matter, energy, force, and time in an attempt to explain how these factors shape the physical behaviour of the universe. Physics can be divided into many branches. Scientists study the motion of objects, a huge branch of physics known as mechanics that involves two overlapping sets of scientific laws. The laws of classical mechanics govern the behaviour of objects in the macroscopic world, which includes everything from billiard balls to stars.
The earth sciences examine the structure and composition of our planet, and the physical processes that have helped to shape it. Geology focuses on the structure of Earth, while geography is the study of everything on the planet's surface, including the physical changes that humans have brought about from, for example, farming, mining, or deforestation. Scientists in the field of geomorphology study Earth's present landforms, while mineralogists investigate the minerals in Earth's crust and the way they formed.
The life sciences include all those areas of study that deal with living things. Biology is the general study of the origin, development, structure, function, evolution, and distribution of living things. Biology may be divided into botany, the study of plants; zoology, the study of animals; and microbiology, the study of the microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many single-celled organisms play important roles in life processes and thus are important to more complex forms of life, including plants and animals.
The social sciences explore human society past and present, and the way human beings behave. They include sociology, which investigates the way society is structured and how it functions, as well as psychology, which is the study of individual behavior and the mind. Social psychology draws on research in both these fields. It examines the way society influences people's behavior and attitudes.
In technology, scientific knowledge is put to practical ends. This knowledge comes chiefly from mathematics and the physical sciences, and it is used in designing machinery, materials, and industrial processes. In general, this work is known as engineering, a word dating back to the early days of the Industrial Revolution, when an 'engine' was any kind of machine.